LIVA book sterilizer-Improves the image of borrowed books in people’s mind
Nigerian researchers find resistant bugs in pages
BOSTON -- Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria may lurk between the pages of great novels and works of literature found at the public library, researchers reported here.
The bacteria isolated from four public libraries at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria, were species of Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Proteus, Micrococcus, Yersenia, Erwinia, Klebsiella Serratia, Pseudomonas and Providencia, reported Giwa Holy Johnson, PhD, of the university, and colleagues.
Bacillus spp. had the highest occurrence at 27.5% followed by Staphylococcus sp. which was found in 22.5% of samples. Erwinia and Providencia spp. had the lowest occurrence of 2.5% each, they said in a presentation at the ASM Microbe meeting.
"The microorganisms clearly showed resistance to the test antibiotics and this ranged between 17.5% for ciprofloxacin to 75% for tetracycline," Johnson told MedPage Today.
Of the bacterial isolates identified from the libraries, he said that all of them appeared to show resistance to one of more of the common antis that were tested. "About 82.5% of these isolates were resistant to at least two of the antimicrobials," he said.
"Results of this study also shows that library environments -- indoor air and books -- can serve as environmental reservoirs of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria, which are capable of being transferred from person to person," Johnson's group wrote.
The findings in the Nigerian study are likely to be seen at most libraries in western countries, too.
"I think you would find very similar results if you tests books at the Boston Public Library," said Gregory Reppucci, professor of food science safety at North Shore Community College in Danvers, Mass. "The bacteria found on books and surfaces in libraries are also likely to be resistant to some of most common antibiotics."
However, Reppucci, who was not involved in the study, pointed out that these bacteria would not "be likely to cause active infections unless the person exposed to these bacteria are in some way immune compromised," Reppucci told MedPage Today.
Johnson noted that "sampling and analyzing indoor air and books from the selected libraries in the university resulted in a high count of bacteria and the isolation of some microorganisms of public health concerns which were resistant to commonly used antibiotics indicating the health risk exposure to both the library users and library staff.
"Antimicrobials resistance by bacteria has become worrisome worldwide especially in developing countries like Nigeria, threatening the ability to treat infections," Johnson's group wrote. "Most public libraries worldwide are closed settings and if poorly ventilated, may provide occasions for the transmission of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria between immune compromised and normal individuals in the general public."
"Although, studies have shown the presence of pathogenic bacteria in toys and magazines in hospitals, little or nothing is documented about pathogenic bacteria in library books," they added.
The researchers used the settle plate method to collect indoor air samples while surfaces of books were swabbed. They took 30 samples from book surfaces in the library and 10 samples of the ambient air. The samples were then transported to the university's microbiology laboratory. The samples were incubated for 24 to 48 hours, and underwent antibiotic sensitivity tests for screened and identified bacterial isolates.
LIVA book sterilizer-Improve the image of borrowed books in people’s mind
Readers are reluctant to borrow books at the thought of the pathogenic microorganisms and the traces left on books. Readers’ subconscious association is often not under control. Reading borrowed books is not an enjoyable and fulfilling experience anymore. Instead, the feelings of disgust and horror prevail. The librarians have to bear much more as they are surrounded by piles of books. The task of cleaning books often comes with a fight in their mind. To them, the returned books have to be dealt with, but they will face the potential dangers.
LIVA book sterilizer brings good news to readers and the librarians. Only by putting the borrowed books on the book-shelf and touching the starting button, clean books are available. It is breathtaking that the disinfection rate can reach to 99.9% in 30 seconds. What is more, the lifespan of the UV-C lamp has extended to at least 1,5000 times on/off by our independent research, which is 3-6 times that of other products in the same industry. We have achieved test report from authoritative test agency proving that the lifespan of LIVA book sterilizer can reach 30,000 times on/off.